Scroll Down. Indeed, a drunken or hallucinating person could still perceive things correctly, therefore these objections cannot be said to necessarily disprove all religious experiences. They include fideists and reformed epistemologists. The dogma and tenets of many different religions also work as philosophical musings on life, spirituality, and the connection between the natural world and the supernatural. A general question which philosophy of religion asks is what is the relationship, if any, between morality and religion. "[100] Similar approaches based on negation can be seen in the Hindu doctrine of Neti neti and the Buddhist philosophy of Madhyamaka. Philosophy of religion covers alternative beliefs about God (or gods), the varieties of religious experience, the interplay between science and religion, the nature and scope of good and evil, and religious treatments of birth, history, and death. "[51] However, as William L. Rowe notes: The hidden assumption in Russell's argument is that bodily and mental states that interfere with reliable perceptions of the physical world also interfere with reliable perceptions of a spiritual world beyond the physical, if there is such a spiritual world to be perceived. [49] In this view, the conceptual scheme of any mystic strongly shapes their experiences and because mystics from different religions have very different schemas, there cannot be any universal mystical experiences.[49]. This view is also a position on the mind body problem, mainly, dualism. Business Management & Finance High School, Unit 3 Assignment - Philosophy of Religion.docx, Business Management & Finance High School • MANAGEMENT BBA, Copyright © 2020. Yandell, Keith E. PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION A contemporary introduction, Routledge, 2002, Part II in general. ), Morality somehow requires religion. The obvious criticism to this is that many religions clearly put forth metaphysical claims. Wilkins, John; Griffiths, Paul, "Evolutionary debunking arguments in three domains: Fact, value, and religion", 2013. Secondly, Rowe argues that Hume overestimates "the weight that should be given to past experience in support of some principle thought to be a law of nature." More recent supporters of evidentialism include Antony Flew ("The Presumption of Atheism", 1972) and Michael Scriven (Primary philosophy, 1966). [61] For example, for Christianity, sin is the source of human problems, while for Buddhism, it is craving and ignorance. In Aristotle's Metaphysics, the necessarily prior cause of eternal motion was an unmoved mover, who, like the object of desire, or of thought, inspires motion without itself being moved. This view is espoused by the likes of Aldous Huxley, the thinkers of the Traditionalist School as well as Neo-Vedanta. [85], In the modern Western study of religion, the work of Ninian Smart has also been instrumental in representing a more diverse understanding of religion and religious pluralism. The view that religion and morality are often opposed has been espoused by atheists like. [92] Sigmund Freud was a famous proponent of this view, in various publications such as The Future of an Illusion (1927) and Civilization and Its Discontents (1930). [20], The Hindu view of Advaita Vedanta, as defended by Adi Shankara, is a total non-dualism. A further issue is with continuity of personal identity, that is, it is not easy to account for the claim that the person that exists after bodily death is the same person that existed before.[74]. Kristin Beise Kiblinger. [7] Greek philosophies like Pythagoreanism and Stoicism included religious elements and theories about deities, and Medieval philosophy was strongly influenced by the big three monotheistic Abrahamic religions. As Rowe notes, the fact that the mind depends on the functions of the body while one is alive is not necessarily proof that the mind will cease functioning after death just as a person trapped in a room while depending on the windows to see the outside world might continue to see even after the room ceases to exist.[76]. Perennialists tend to distinguish between the experience itself, and its post experience interpretation to make sense of the different views in world religions. A miracle is an event which cannot be explained by rational or scientific means. Another can be seen in the various theories put forth by the Cognitive science of religion. For Hume, the probability that a miracle hasn't occurred is always greater than the probability that it has because "as a firm and unalterable experience has established these laws [of nature], the proof against a miracle, from the very nature of the fact, is as entire as any argument from experience can possibly be imagined" (Enquiry. [66] Hume doesn't argue that a miracle is impossible, only that it is unreasonable to believe in any testimony of a miracle's occurrence, for evidence for the regularity of natural laws is much stronger than human testimony (which is often in error). Some work in recent epistemology of religion goes beyond debates over evidentialism, fideism, and reformed epistemology to consider contemporary issues deriving from new ideas about knowledge-how and practical skill; how practical factors can affect whether one could know whether theism is true; from formal epistemology's use of probability theory; or from social epistemology (particularly the epistemology of testimony, or the epistemology of disagreement).[31]. [47] However, he argues that we cannot deduce from the fact that our experiences are sometimes mistaken, hallucinations or distorted to the conclusion that all religious experiences are mistaken etc. David Hume, who defined a miracle as "a violation of the laws of nature", famously argued against miracles in Of Miracles, Section X of An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding (1748). Philosophy can generally be divided into five main branches: Metaphysics: is the study of reality. In the Western world, early modern philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and George Berkeley discussed religious topics alongside secular philosophical issues as well. [91] According to Runzo, this view does not reduce the incompatible ideas and experiences of different religions to mere interpretations of the Real and thus preserves their individual dignity. Relationship between religion and science, An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Possible Exam Questions – Philosophy of Religion GCE H573/1 2018. Faith vs. Reason - Are there other ways to find a basis for belief? Mystical experiences in which one senses one's own union with a divine presence. [21], The various philosophical positions of Taoism can also be viewed as non-theistic about the ultimate reality (Tao). [102] As Chad Meister notes though, for Wittgenstein, a religion's language game need not reflect some literal picture of reality (as a picture theory of meaning would hold) but is useful simply because its ability to "reflect the practices and forms of life of the various religious adherents. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion 2rd Edition, 1993, p. 2. [86], Against this view, realists respond that non-realism subverts religious belief and the intelligibility of religious practice. It can be carried out dispassionately by those who identify as believers or non-believers. 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